### References

The references displayed as a table:

Quality Level | Practical Factor (see above) | Factors acc. [1] | Factors acc. [2] | Factors acc. [2] | Factors acc. [3] | Factors acc. [3] | Factors acc. [4] | Factors acc. [4] | Factors acc. [5]*** | Factors acc. [5] |

Factors acc. [5] | | | | | | | | | | |

"Normal" Product Development | Base: **1** | Base: **1.0** | | | | | Base: 1.0 | Base: **2.0**** | | |

Structured Development | **3** | **3.2** | Base: 1.0 | Base: **3.0** | Base: 1.0 | Base: **2.5*** | | | | |

Critical Development | **5** | **4.4** | 1.2 | **3.6** := 3.0 * 1.2 | 2.0..2.9 | **5.0..7.3** := 2.5 * (2.0..2.9) | 1.5..4.0 | **3.0..8.0** := 2.0 * 1.5..4.0 | 0.125..0.5 | Base: **5.0** ^= 0.25**** |

Highly Critical Development | **7** | **5.7** | 1.7 | **5.1**:= 3.0 * 1.7 | 4.4..6.4 | **11..16** := 2.5 * (4.4..4.6) | 5.0..10.0+ | **5.0..20.0** := 2.0 * 5.0..10.0 | 0.4..2.5 | **8..50** := 20 * 0.4..2.5 |

* Note that the base for [3] is CMMI level 2/3, a lower level than [1] , where level 3 is assumed; in [2] also level 2/ 3 is presumed, but the numbers are nearer at [1]. As a result, the steps to safety levels for [3] are probably too high. This has been corrected in the choice of this base.

** The basis was also adapted here, since "Functional System" in the context of the source (automotive) probably already has an aSPICE level.

*** Ph/ LOC

**** geometric mean

And the corresponding links:

[1] V. Hilderman: Calculate Critical Safety Cost Easy : (only effort, no tools cost included)

- from "Basic Development" to "Requirements, Design, Test" to "Non-Certified Safety": plus 50% plus 50% plus 40% = 3.15
- from "Non-Certified Safety" to "DAL-D/ ASIL-B": plus 40% = 1.4
- from "DAL-D/ ASIL-B" to "DAL-B/ ASIL-D": plus 30% = 1.3

[2] V. Hilderman: DO-178C Cost versus Benefits :

- from "DAL-E" to "DAL-D": plus 5% = 1.15
- from "DAL-D" to "DAL-B": plus 35% plus 10% = 1.5

[3] Rockwell-Collins: Certification Cost Estimates for Future Communication Radio Platforms :

Refers to "industry established metrics" (p 26) and "industry averages" (p 27) of unknown source and to "Mentor Graphics" for hardware (p 27).

- p 27: stating 75..150% more effort than Hilderman ("25..40%") for DO-178B, "presuming [..] CMMI Level 2 or 3 software engineering principles are used": from "Level 2/ 3" to "DAL-D": plus 100..190% = 2.0..2.9
- p 29: from "DAL-D" to "DAL-B": plus 54% plus 43% = 2.2

[4] How the ISO 26262: 2018 Update Affects You: The Cost of ASIL Compliance :

"For example, to plan, execute, verify, and document compliance, the following effort multipliers could be considered:

Functional System : 1

ASIL A : 1.5x – 3x

ASIL B : 2x – 4x

ASIL C : 5x – 8x

ASIL D : 10x+"

[5] Cost of highly safety critical software

"DAL A: 3..12 SLOC/ day

DAL B: 8..20 SLOC/ day

DAL C: 15..40 SLOC/ day

DAL D: 25..64 SLOC/ day"

SLOC: Source Line Of Code

This yields for DAL A/ B: 0.4..2.5 LOC/ h and for DAL C/ D: 2..8 LOC/ h.

[6] Coverity: Risk Mitigation for DO-178C

"In typical cases, the cost of DO-178 certification can range from $25 to $100 per line of code—

that’s $2.5 million to $10 million for 100,000 lines of code!" (p 1) results at an hourly rate of 50 USD in: 0.5..2 LOC/ h.